Abstract: Background, aim, and scope Hail disaster is one of the main nature disasters that seriously affect the agriculture of Baoji area. In this paper, the risk of the hail disaster on crops of Baoji area were calculated by comprehensively evaluating the hazards of disaster-causing factors, exposure and vulnerability of disaster bodies. The adjustments of measurements against hail disaster were suggested. Materials and methods The spatial distribution of the main crops (wheat, corn, cotton) in Baoji area were obtained by interpreting Landsat TM images of the year 2016. The hail intensity, frequency and anti-disaster capacity were calculated on the hail records of Baoji Meteorological Bureau from 1961 to 2016. The disaster sensitivity index of main crops was determined according to the records of crops loss after hail disaster. Finally, the hazards of disaster-causing factors, exposure and vulnerability of disaster bodies were used to calculate the risk of the hail disaster on crops of Baoji area by comprehensive evaluation method and natural breaks classification method. Results Areas with medium risk account for 43.5% of the total area with crops and mainly distribute in Qianyang, Fengxian, Qishan and Fufeng. Areas with sub-high risk account for 25.2% and mainly distribute in Chencang and Fufeng. Areas with sub-low risk account for 18.7% of the total area and mainly distribute in Jintai, Mei County and other sporadic areas. Areas with high risk account for 9.8% and all distribute in Long County and Linyou. Areas with low-risk account for the least proportion of 2.8% and scatter in Feng County and Fufeng. Discussion The vulnerability of crops to hail disaster were calculated according to the records of crops loss after hail disaster and the inquiry of planters, which can be further improved by plotting the vulnerability curve of crops through experiments. The risk grades of hail disaster on crops over Baoji area are the combined consequences of disaster intensity, anti-disaster capacity, types of crops and spatial distribution of crops. Conclusions The risk grade of hail disaster on crops, and sensitivity and vulnerability grade of crops to hail disaster in Baoji area are mainly medium. High risk area was mainly in Long county with the strongest hazards of hail disaster. High sensitivity and vulnerability areas were mainly in the cotton area of Fufeng, Fengxiang and Qishan. Recommendations and perspectives The monitoring and early warning of hail disaster in areas with high risk shall be strengthened, and the distribution of anti-hail stations and crop fields shall be adjusted according to the risk distribution of hail disaster.
Keywords: vulnerability; susceptibility; hail disaster; risk assessment; Baoji