Abstract: Background aim, and scope Compared with the immigration caused by the traditional push-pull theory, immigrants in South Shaanxi have the characteristics of government behavior, breaking the pattern of matching the laborers formed in the natural evolution with scattered farmland, and the situation of separation between laborers and land may cause unsustainable livelihoods after relocation. Therefore, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore the ways to increase the income of immigrants in the future. Materials and methods This article obtains theoretical materials by consulting relevant documents in southern Shaanxi, and conducts field surveys of 584 relocated families in 9 counties, including Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, as first-hand sample data, and discusses them by means of principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Results Through analysis of the survey data, it is found that: (1) The relocation distance has an impact on the quality of life and income of farmers. (2) The relocation distance will cause a change in the income pattern of farmers. (3) The income level of households, family structure, and employment methods are the main influencing factors on the living standards of farmers. Discussion The relocation distance is within two kilometers as the appropriate distance. The community size is below 500, and the farmers are most satisfied. Conclusions The farther the relocation distance is, the farmers cannot continue to use the original land and other means of production and living, the agricultural production is developing slowly, and the level of agricultural technology is relatively lagging, which reduces the farmers' income from farming, changes the income mode to work and resettles nearby, improves the human capital of immigrants, The resettlement industry and other measures are an alternative way to solve the source of income for resettlement households. Recommendations and perspectives This article has enriched the empirical research on the planning and construction of new villages in southern Shaanxi and the subsequent development of rural industries. Due to the lack of sample data, research period and research content, the follow-up needs further discussion.
Keywords: Immigration relocation; relocation distance; separation of people and land; sustainable livelihoods; Income approach